Electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles for the critically ill

Intensive care beds, which cater for critically ill patients, are predicted to represent >30% of all future hospital beds. Around a third of critically ill patients require mechanical ventilation to help them breathe. While a lifesaving intervention, mechanical ventilation increases breathing and heart related complications, decreases quality of life, and […]


The debate on muscle hypertrophy

For decades, there has been a consensus amongst scientists and practitioners that one of the ways people become stronger after resistance training is that their muscles become bigger. This increase in muscle size is termed muscle hypertrophy. Over the past 3 years, however, Jeremy Loenneke’s research group at the University […]


Long-term self-stretching increases muscle length in chronic hemiparesis 2

In stroke-induced hemiparesis, muscles such as the plantar flexors undergo dramatic alterations that involve both physical shortening (decrease in fascicle length) and viscoelastic loss of extensibility (Kwah et al., 2012). This muscle disorder has been termed spastic myopathy (Gracies, 2015) and is commonly treated with stretching techniques. However, the effectiveness […]


Aerobic exercise enhances fluid intelligence in stroke patients

Fluid intelligence, sometimes called abstract reasoning, is the ability to think logically and solve problems; a highly valued human capacity. Over 70% of patients admitted to hospital with stroke have cognitive impairment, but cognition is rarely a target of rehabilitation treatments. Moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise is a potent brain stimulus […]


We mislocalise landmarks on our hand when we can’t see it

Previous studies have shown that healthy individuals, when asked to locate the position of the tips and knuckles of each finger on their hand when it could not be seen, consistently misjudge the size and shape of their hand (Longo & Haggard, 2010). They overestimate the width of their hand […]


The learning effect with 1RM strength tests

The one repetition maximum (1RM) is a test of muscle strength. It is defined as the maximal amount of weight an individual can lift once, but not twice, when using the correct technique. Common 1RM tests include the bench press, chest press machine, biceps curl, lat pulldown, back squat, leg […]