exercise


How many times per week should an older person perform resistance training? “More is more” versus “less is more”

Current recommendations for physical activity state healthy adults should: 1) engage in moderate aerobic exercise for at least 150 minutes per week and 2) perform resistance training (i.e. strength training) for all major muscle groups at least two times per week (World Health Organization, 2010). However, according to recent reports […]


Combining functional exercises with resistance training increases muscle size and improves function in young adults with cerebral palsy

Sizes of leg muscles in young adults with cerebral palsy can be reduced by up to 50% compared with typically developing people (Shortland 2009). The reduced muscle size may be caused by the effects of cerebral palsy itself, reduced muscle use, treatments that are directed at the muscle (such as […]


Jars of jam and muscle weakness in the morning 2

It’s 6AM. Last night, you missed dinner and you’ve woken up early because your body is ready for a feed. You stumble from your bedroom into the kitchen. You open the fridge and search for your favourite jar of jam. It’s nowhere to be found. Your partner finished it (without […]


Drinking cold water improves exercise tolerance in multiple sclerosis

During physical activity or exposure to hot environments, individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) can experience heat intolerance, which leads to the rapid onset of fatigue. The underlying cause of this deterioration, known as Uhthoff’s phenomenon among MS researchers, remains unknown (Opara et al. 2016).   Due to Uhthoff’s phenomenon, individuals […]


Keep an eye on exercise supervision

As we get older, we lose muscle size and strength and become more vulnerable to injury (de Souto Barreto 2009; Fried et al. 2005). Each year, 1 in 3 individuals over 65 has a fall (Yoshida 2007), which often leads to fractures, hospital admissions and mortality. Strength and balance exercise […]


What happens to our nerves during fatiguing exercise? 2

Motoneurones are nerve cells in the spinal cord that, when they fire, enable us to make muscle contractions and perform movements. Right now, for example, the motoneurones that control your eye muscles are firing as you move your eyes to read this text.   When we exercise or perform strenuous […]


Pain education increases pain thresholds after exercise

In people with chronic pain, the interactions between exercise and pain are complex. On one hand, regular exercise may be one of the most effective treatments because it consistently improves pain, function and quality of life (Geneen et al., 2017). On the other hand, a single session of exercise, such […]


Training for muscle endurance after stroke

Previous research supports the use of resistance training as a safe and effective exercise intervention for disabled stroke patients (Lee et al. 2010; Pak & Patten 2008). Although resistance training programs for stroke typically target improvements in maximal muscle strength, gains in muscle endurance (i.e. the ability to sustain submaximal […]


Strength training improves the nervous system’s ability to drive muscles 2

Imagine that the New Year has just begun. You’ve made a resolution to improve your physical fitness. In particular, you want to improve your muscle strength. You’ve heard that people with stronger muscles live longer and have less difficulty standing, walking, and using the toilet when they get older (Rantanen […]


Neural mechanisms related to the reduction in muscle force after stretching

Stretching routines are commonly performed before exercise, and they are often included in rehabilitation programs. One of the most common types of stretching is static stretching.  Static stretching involves lengthening the muscle, then holding it at a lengthened position for several seconds. For example, if you bend over to touch […]